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顺口溜巧记最难学的英语从句  

2012-07-02 13:06:59|  分类: 教子篇 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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【定语从句】定语从句顺口溜

1.定从分类有奥妙,  限与非限看逗号;

定前必有先行词,名代两类最适宜;

定从先行很紧密,代副两词拉关系; 

 

2.关系代词有六个,听我逐一来说破;

which表物人用who,人物都有that顾;

which用在逗号后,意表前句你要know;

who做主语很称职,whom用到宾语里; 

 

3.that用法真有趣, 两个地方它不去;

逗号后边它不去, 介词之后不考虑; 

 

4.That which代表物,区别听我来叙述;

先行若是不定代,that就把which 踹;

先行词前有两数, 就用that定无误;

先行词前最高级, 还用that必无疑;

句中若有there be, that应把which替;

先行主中做表语, 避免重复从句里;

(Just the only very same last, 其后也要用that;) 

 

5.指人可用that who, 以下情况多用who;

Those people做先行,There be的结构中;

先行指人不定代,从中做主who要在;

两个定从一起来,不要重复你有才; 

 

6.定从之中少定语,whose为你唱一曲;

Whose指人又指物,所属关系要记住。 

 

7.As/which在句末,若有否定as错;

句首只能用as,还有认知猜想词;

固定结构用as, the same /such/so/as;

So /such …that宾不离,so/such…as宾要弃; 

 

8.关系代词到这里,主宾表定作用起;

关系代词做宾语,省与不省全靠你; 

 

9.关系副词when/where/why, 从中做状莫懈怠;

时间用when原因why,地点where经常在;

关系副词可替换,介词加上关系代;

关系代,关系代,that与who要除外;

挑选介词要聪明,必看动词和先行;

聪明反被聪明误,只因乱用关系副;

关系副,关系副,定缺主宾它不住;

它不住,它不住,关系代词来玩酷; 

 

10.只记上边不可以,特殊情况告诉你;

先行用way 做状语, in which/ that /略可以;

one of +复做先行,从中谓语复数明,

one前若有only/very, 从中谓语定用单 ;

定从名从可转换,all that被 what换; 


定语从句顺口溜分段解析:
1.定从分类有奥妙,  限与非限看逗号;

定语从句分为两大类:限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句,区分它们有两个标准:1)从内容上看,限制性定语从句与它所修饰的先行词关系紧密,不可去掉,去掉后意思就不完整了;非限制性定语从句只对先行词起补充说明的作用,去掉后不影响句子的完整性。2)从形式上看,限制性定语从句与先行词之间没有逗号隔开,而非限制性定语从句与先行词之间有逗号隔开。请看例句:

The girl who is wearing a blue necklace is Mary.(限制性)

The girl, who is also a student, is planting trees in the field.(非限制性)

解析:第一句中的who is wearing a blue necklace是限制性定语从句,没有逗号,不那去掉,否则意思不完整。 

定前必有先行词,名代两类最适宜;

例句:

1)There is somebody here who wants to speak to you.

有人要和你讲话。

2)Those who were for the plan raised their hands.

那些赞成计划的举起了手。

3)This novel, which I have read three times, is very touching.

这本小说很动人,我已经读了三遍。

解析:例句中somebody、those是代词,novel是名词,是被定语从句修饰的词,叫做先行词,可以做先行词的是名词和代词两类。

定从先行很紧密,代副两词拉关系;

定语从句都在先行词之后,连接定从和先行词的词,叫做关系词。关系词有两类:关系代词和关系副词。关系词要注意两点:1)它的人称、数和意思完全等同于先行词,2)关系词在定语从句中做一定的句子成分。

例句 1) The boys who are playing football are from Class One.

       正在踢足球的男生们是一班的。

解析:who=boys , 在定语从句中做主语,所以其后谓语用are。

例句 2) Football is a game which is liked by most boys.

       足球是大多数男孩子喜欢的运动。

解析:which=game, 在定语从句中做主语。

例句  3)I still remember the day when I first came to the school.

        我仍然还记得第一次到学校的那一天。

解析:when是关系副词=on the day, 在定语从句中做时间状语。

例句 4)The house where I lived ten years ago has been pulled down.

      十年前我居住的房子已经被拆了。

解析:where是关系副词=in the house, 在定语从句中做地点状语。

例句 5)Please tell me the reason why you missed the plane.

     请告诉我你没赶上飞机的原因。

解析:why是关系副词=for the reason, 在定语从句中做原因状语。

2. 关系代词有六个,听我逐一来说破;

六个关系代词是:that/which/ who/ whom/ whose/ as , 注意关系代词在定语从句中做主宾表定语。

which表物人用who,人物都有that顾;

先行词是物,关系代词用which,也可以用that;先行词是人,关系代词用who,也可以用that;先行词中既有人,又有物,关系代词只能用that。

例句 1) This is the mountain village (which/ that ) I visited last year. 

       这就是我去年参观的那个山村。

解析:先行词mountain village是物,可用which或that, 因为定语从句中visit后缺宾语,说明which或that应该在定从中做宾语,所以还可以省略。

例句 2)The man(that/whom / who ) you met just now is my friend.

     你刚刚见到的那个人是我的朋友。

解析:先行词man表人,关系词可以用who/that/whom,因为定语从句中缺宾语,关系代词应该在定语从句中做宾语,所以可以省略;另外,whom是专门用来做宾语用的,而who则只是在口语中才用。

例句 3)This magazine belongs to the teacher who(that) teaches us history.

       这本杂志是我们历史老师的。

解析:先行词teacher是人,关系代词用who或that, 因为在定语从句中做主语,所以不能省略。

例句 4)He talked about the teachers and schools (that) he had visited.

       他谈到了他所见到的老师和学校。

解析:先行词 the teachers and schools 中既有人又有物,关系代词只能用 that, 又因为that在定语从句中做宾语,所以又可以省略。

 

which用在逗号后,意表前句你要know;

这是which用在非限制性定语从句中的一个用法。

例句1)He seems not to have grasped what I meant, which greatly upsets me.

他似乎没抓住我的意思,这使我心烦。

解析:which是关系代词,指代前面的一句话:他似乎没抓住我的意思。

例句2)Liquid water changes to vapor, which is called evaporation.

液态水变为蒸汽,这就叫做蒸发。

解析:which是关系代词,指代前面的一句话:液态水变为蒸汽。

who做主语很称职,whom用到宾语里;

先行词是表示人的词,定语从句中如果缺主语,要用who做关系代词,如果缺宾语,正规场合下用whom, 口语中也可以用who。

例句 1)He is the boy who often goes to school late.

       他就是那个经常上学迟到的男生。

解析:先行词the boy 指人,后面的定语从句中缺少主语,因此用关系代词who。

例句 2)She is the old woman whom I saw this morning.

       她就是我今天早晨看到的那位老太太。

解析:先行词the old woman指人,后面的定语从句中缺少宾语,所以用whom,口语中也可以用who。 

3.that用法真有趣, 两个地方它不去;

逗号后边它不去, 介词之后不考虑;

That做为关系代词,不可用在非限制性定语从句中,即不可用在逗号后边;定语从句中介词之后也不可使用。在逗号或介词后,指物时用which,指人时用who或whom。

例句1)They arrived at a farmhouse, in front of ______sat a small boy. 

A. whom B. who C. which D. that

解析:在介词of之后指物,选择C which。

例句 2)The engineer with _____my father works is about 50 years old.

A. whose  B.  who  C.   which D.   whom

解析:选择 D whom。介词后指人。

例句 3)The letter is from my sister, ______is working in Beijing.

A. which B. that C. whom D. who

解析:选择 D who。逗号后指人,在定语从句中做主语。

4.That which代表物,区别听我来叙述;

先行若是不定代,that就把which 踹;

当先行词为anything,everything,nothing,all,any,much,many,one等不定代词时,只能使用“that”, 不用 “which”。

例:Is there anything that I can do for you?  我能给你做点什么吗?

先行词前有两数, 就用that定无误;

当先行词是基数词或序数词修饰时,只能使用“that”,不用 “which”。

例句: That is the second time that I have been to Japan. 那是我去日本的第二次。

     The two buildings that lay on the River Thames fell down last week.

     坐落在泰晤士河岸边的那两座大楼上星期倒塌了。

先行词前最高级, 还用that必无疑;

当先行词是形容词最高级或被形容词最高级修饰时,只能使用“that”, 不用 “which”。

例句:This is the most wonderful time that I have ever had.

这是我度过的最美好的时光。

句中若有there be, that应把which替;

例:There is no evidence that animals possess a mysterious sixth-sense allowing them to predict natural disasters. 说动物拥有神秘的第六感,可以预知自然灾害,这是没有根据的。

先行主中做表语, 避免重复从句里;

例句:1)This is not the hospital that it used to be.

这已经不再是以前那座医院了。

2)Mr Thomson is not the man that he was.

汤姆森先生已经不再是以前的他了。

解析:定语从句的先行词均在主句中做表语。

例句:Which is the course that we are to take ?

     我们要学哪门课?

解析:句中已有which,后面不再用which,避免重复用that。

(Just the only very same last, 其后也要用that;)

先行词前有Just 、the only、 very 、same 、last等词,关系代词用that,不用which。

例句:1) The North Pole is the only place that you can see polar bears.

         北极是唯一能见到北极熊的地方。

      2)This is the same bike that he lost.

         这就是他丢了的那辆自行车。

      注意区分:

      3) This is the same bike as he lost.

         这辆自行车和他丢的那辆一样。(但不是)

5.指人可用that who, 以下情况多用who;

Those people做先行,There be的结构中;

例句:

1) Those who are for the plan, please raise your hands.

  赞成计划的人请举手。

2) People who create computer viruses are called hackers.

  制造电脑病毒的人被称为黑客。

3) There was once a little boy who came to the net bar to play games every night.

  曾经有一个小男孩每天晚上都来网吧玩游戏。

先行指人不定代,从中做主who要在;

先行词是指人的不定代词,如 one 、someone 、anyone 、nobody 等词,或指人的关系代词在定语从句中做主语,要用who, 而不用that。

例句:

1)Nobody who knows a little scientific knowledge will believe you.

懂得一点科学知识的人都不会相信你的话。

解析:nobody是指人的不定代词,用who, 不用that。

2)The thief who pretended to be a manager was caught stealing a car.

  那个装扮成经理的贼在偷车时被当场抓获。

解析:who指人,在定语从句中做主语。

两个定从一起来,不要重复你有才;

一个先行词有两个定语从句时,关系代词要避免重复使用。

A plant that can cure diseases, which was known by the ancient Chinese , is called Chinese herbal medicine. 一种能够治病的,被古代中国人所熟知的植物,叫做中药。

6.定从之中少定语,whose为你唱一曲;

Whose指人又指物,所属关系要记住。

Whose也是一个关系代词,在定语从句中做定语,表示人与人、人与物或物与物之间的所属关系,特别要注意,物与物之间的关系也用whose。

例句 1)Is there anyone in your class whose family is in the country?

解析:anyone是先行词,whose=anyone’s,在定语从句中做定语。

例句 2) Pass me the book whose cover is red. 

解析:the book是先行词,whose=the book’s, 在定语从句中做定语。

7.As/which在句末,若有否定as错;

as和 which都可指代前面一句话,请看例句:

1)Alice received an invitation from her boss, which came as a surprise.

爱丽丝受到了她老板的邀请,这使她感到吃惊。

2)The weather turned out to be very good, which was more than we could expect.

天气结果变好了,这是我们没有预料到的。

若有否定as错;

3)The result of the experiment was very good, _______ we hadn't expected.

  A. when B. that C. which D. what

【简析】答案是C。由于非限定性定语从句是否定结构,只能用which引导,不能用as来替代which。

句首只能用as,还有认知猜想词;

置于句首时,非限定性定语从句只能用as引导。例如:

As is known to everybody, the moon travels round the earth once every month.  

众所周知,月亮每月绕地球一周。

与表示认知猜想的词,如know, expect, see, report, 连用时,要用as。

1)As we know, smoking is harmful to one's health.

我们知道,吸烟对健康有害。

2)As is expected, his daughter entered a key university.

正如人们所期望的那样,他的女儿考入了一所重点大学。

固定结构用as, the same /such/so/as;  

1)  在the same …as….结构中。意思是 “像……一样的”。 例如:

Chongqing is not the same city as we have seen in other places.

  重庆和我们在其它地方看过的城市不一样。

 

  注意区分: the same ….that….,请看例句:

  This is the same pen that I lost. 这正是我所丢的钢笔。(同一)

  This is the same pen as I lost.  这支钢笔和我丢的那支一样。(相似,不是一个)

2)在as...as结构中,意思是“像……那样的”。例如:

  No period in history has had as many important changes _______ have taken place in the past century. 没有哪个历史阶段像过去的一个世纪这样有如此多的重大变化。

3)在such…as…结构中, 意思是“像……那样的”。例如:

   Mathilde had to work hard day and night and bought such a diamond necklace as she had lost to pay back to Jeanne.

   马帝尔德不得不日日夜夜地干活,来买一个像被她丢掉的那样的钻石项链还给让。

So /such …that宾不离,so/such…as宾要弃;

在so/such…that结构中,that后引导的不是定语从句,而是状语从句,从句中必须有宾语;在so/such…as结构中, as后引导的是定语从句,从句中不带宾语。

例如:

1)He studies in such a good school that all other students in his village admire him.

  他在那样好的一所学校学习,以至于村子里其他的学生都很羡慕他。

解析:that后是状语从句,状语从句中有宾语him。

2)He studies in such a good school as all other students in his village admire.

  他在那样好的一所学校学习,村里的其它学生都很羡慕那所学校。

解析:as后是定语从句,as代替先行词school,在定语从句中做admire的宾语。

8.关系代词到这里,主宾表定作用起;

关系代词做宾语,省与不省全靠你;

到此为止,我们一共学了六个关系代词,分别是:which, that, who, whom, whose, as ,这些关系代词在定语从句中可以做主语、宾语、表语和定语,关系代词which/ that/ whom做宾语时,可以省略。

 

9.关系副词when/where/why, 从中做状莫懈怠;

时间用when原因why,地点where经常在;

定语从句中的关系副词有三个:when, where和why,它们在定语从句中分别作时间、地点和原因状语。when指时间, where指地点,why表原因。例如:

I still remember the day when I first came to Beijing.

我仍然记得我初次到北京的那天。

The factory where his father works is in the west of the city.

他父亲工作的那个工厂在城市的西郊。

That is the reason why I did the job.

那就是我为什么干这个活的原因。

关系副词可替换,介词加上关系代;

关系副词可以由介词加上which来替换。例如:

1)This is the house where  (in which) I lived two years ago.

 在这句中,where= in which

2) Do you remember the day when (on which) you joined our club?

 在这句中,when= on which

3) This is the reason why (for which)  he came late.

 在这句中,reason= for which

关系代,关系代,that与who要除外;

挑选介词要聪明,必看动词和先行;

介词后可用关系代词,但只能用which或whom,不能用that 和who。那么,这个介词怎么选呢?其一,可以看定语从句中的谓语动词;其二,可以看先行词。例如:

1) The pain from which the poor suffered in this area has attracted the attention of the public.

 本句中用from 加 which, from与定语从句中的谓语动词搭配,suffer from。

2) English is a useful tool in which I can communicate with foreign friends.

本句中用in加which, 和先行词搭配,先行词表语言,因此用in。

聪明反被聪明误,只因乱用关系副;

关系副,关系副,定缺主宾它不住;

它不住,它不住,关系代词来玩酷;

关系副词在定语从句中是做状语的,where做地点状语,when做时间状语,why做原因状语,但要特别注意,如果定语从句中所缺的不是状语,而是主语、宾语或表语,就不要用关系副词,而要用关系代词。例如:

1) I still remember the days _____ we spent together in the mountains last summer.

  先看定语从句中所缺少的句子成分,spent是及物动词,缺宾语,因此不能填when, 而要用关系代词which或that。

2)This is the house ______ his grandfather once lived in.

   先看定语从句中所缺少的句子成分,lived in, 明显缺宾语,in是介词,介词后应该有宾语,所以不能填where, 而要用which或that。

3)Is that the reason _______ you explained to the teacher for your being late for school?

   先看定语从句中所缺少的句子成分,explain后应该跟双宾语,缺少一个宾语,因此不能用why, 而要用which或that。

10.只记上边不可以,特殊情况告诉你;

先行用way 做状语, in which/ that /略可以,

先行词是way, 表示方式,在定语从句中做方式状语,其后的关系词可以有三种处理方式,即:in which/ that 或省略。

例句:

I like the way he smiles.

I like the way that he smiles.

I like the way in which he smiles.

one of +复做先行,从中谓语复数明,

one前若有only/ very, 从中谓语定用单;

例句:

Ling Qing is one of the volunteers who are ready to go to the countryside.

Ling Qing is the only one of the volunteers who is ready to go to the countryside.

定从名从可转换,all that被 what换;

名词性从句中的what/whatever/whoever等词,在句中做主语、宾语或表语时,可以转换成定语从句。例句:

1) I don’t believe whatever he says.= I don't believe anything (that) he says.

2) Whoever breaks the law will be punished.= Anyone who breaks the law will be punished.

3) The driver didn’t hear what the policeman said. = The driver didn’t hear the words that the policeman said.

4) The students can do all (that) they can to help the old teacher. =  The students can do what they can to help the old teacher. 

定语从句练习题:

1. There is somebody here ______ wants to speak to you.

  A. that  B. who  C. which  D. when

2. Charles Smith, ______ was my former teacher, retired last year.

  A. who  B. that  C. which  D. whom

3. This novel, ______I have read three times, is very touching.

  A. that  B. /  C. which  D. what

4. He seems not to have grasped what I meant, _____ greatly upsets me.

  A.what  B. who  C. whom  D. which

5. Do you like the book ______ color is yellow?

  A. which  B. which’s  C. whose  D. whom

6. The school in ______ he once studied is very famous.

  A. where  B. which  C. that  D. who

7. We’ll go to hear the famous singer _______ we have often talked about.

  A. for whom  B. on who  C. /  D. which

8. He loved his parents deeply, both of ______ are very kind to him.

  A. them  B. that   C. who  D. whom

9. There are forty students in our class in all, and most of ______ are from big cities.

  A. whom  B. which  C. whom  D.them

10. The reason ______ which he refused the invitation is not clear.

  A. why  B. for   C. on   D. that

11. This is the mountain village _______ I visited last year.

  A. /  B. where  C. at which  D. in which

12. I'll never forget the days _______I spent in the countryside. 

  A. which  B. when  C. with whom  D. on which

13. Is this museum ___ you visited a few days ago? 

  A. where B. that C. on which D. the one

14. Is this the museum ____ the exhibition was held?

A. where B. that C. on which D. the one

15. _______ spits in public will be punished here.

   A. Whoever  B. Who  C. Whom  D. Whose

16. _______ we know, smoking is harmful to one's health. 

  A. Which  B. Who  C. Like  D. As

17. The weather turned out to be very good, ___ was more than we could expect.

  A. what B. which C. that D. it 

18. I have got into the same trouble________he (has).

   A. that  B. as  C. like   D. which 

19. Finally, the thief handed everything _______ he had stolen to the police.

   A. that  B. what  C. which  D. who 

20. After the fire in his house, the old car is the only thing _______ he owned.

   A. as   B. that  C. which  D. where

21. Can you remember the scientist and his theory _______ we have learned?

  A. that  B. who  C. which  D. as

22. Do you remember the day ______ you joined our club?

  A. in which  B. that  C. which  D. when

【宾语从句】巧记宾语从句

        [宾语从句歌诀]

  宾语从句三姊妹,that,if/whether,wh-/how展风采。

  展风采有三关,引导词、语序、时态在把关。

  主从时态要一致,陈述语序永不变。

  陈述请你选that,疑问需用if/whether连。

  特殊问句作宾从,原来问词不用换。

  三关过后莫得意,人称、标点需注意。

  留意变脸的if/when,从句的简化记心间。

  [歌诀解码]

  一、三姊妹

  宾语从句根据引导词的不同可分为三种类型:

  1. 由that引导的宾语从句。如:

  We knew (that)we should learn from each other.

  2. 由if/whether引导的宾语从句。如:

  Please tell me if/whether you have been to America.

  3. 由who,where,how等连接代词或连接副词引导的宾语从句。如:

  Can you tell me how I can get to the nearest post office?

  二、三关

  1. 引导词关

  如果从句是陈述句,引导词用that(that在口语或非正式文体中常省略);如果从句是一般疑问句,引导词用if/whether;如果从句是特殊疑问句,引导词用由疑问词转换而来的疑问代词/副词。

  2. 语序关

  ①陈述句变为宾语从句,语序不变,即仍用陈述语序。如:

  He is an honest boy. The teacher said. →The teacher said(that)he was an honest boy.

  ②一般疑问句和特殊疑问句变为宾语从句,语序变为陈述语序。如:

  Does he work hard?I wonder.→I wonder if/whether he works hard.

  When did he leave?I don’t know. →I don’t know when he left.

  3. 时态关

  ①如果主句是现在的时态,从句的时态可根据实际情况而定。如:

  I have heard(that)he will come back next week.

  ②如果主句是过去的某种时态,那么从句的时态一定要用过去的某种时态。如:

  He said(that)there were no classes yesterday.

  注意:如果宾语从句表述的是客观真理、自然现象等时,不管主句是什么时态,从句都要用一般现在时。如:

  He said that light travels much faster than sound.

  三、人称的变化和标点的使用

  1. 从句的主语如果是第一人称,变为宾语从句则与主句的主语一致;如果是第二人称,则与主句的宾语一致;如果是第三人称,不用变化。如:

  “May I use your knife?”He asked me. →He asked me if he might use my knife.

  “Do you know her telephone number?”He asked me. →He asked me if I know her telephone number.

  2. 宾语从句的标点均由主句决定。主句是陈述句,用句号;主句是疑问句,用问号。如:

  Who will give us a talk?I don’t know. →I don’t know who will give us a talk.

  Do you know?Where does he live?→Do you know where he lives?

  四、两副面孔

  if和when既能引导时间状语从句,又能引导宾语从句。因此,遇到它们就要认真分析一下,它们究竟属于“两副面孔”的哪一副。如:

  If it rains tomorrow,I won’t come.(时间状语从句)

  I don’t know if it will rain tomorrow. (宾语从句)

  五、从句的简化

  1. 当主句谓语动词是find,see,watch,hear等感官动词时,从句常简化为“宾语+宾补”结构,宾补为不带to的不定式或V-ing形式。如:

  She found that the wallet lay/was lying on the ground. →She found the wallet lie/lying on the ground.

  2. 当主句谓语动词是hope,wish,decide,forget,plan,agree等,且主句主语与从句主语相同时,从句可简化为不定式结构。如:

  She agreed that she could help me with my maths. →She agreed to help me with my maths.

  3. 在连接代词/副词引导的宾语从句中,当从句主语与主句主语或间接宾语一致时,宾语从句可简化为“连接代词/副词+不定式”结构。如:

  Can you tell me how I can get to the station?→Can you tell me how to get to the station?

be 的用法口诀
        我用am,你用are,is连着他,她,它;
        单数名词用is,复数名词全用are.
        变疑问,往前提,句末问号莫丢弃
        变否定,更容易,be后not莫忘记
        疑问否定任你变,句首大写莫迟疑

时间名词前所用介词的速记歌
        年月周前要用in,日子前面却不行
        遇到几号要用on,上午下午又是in.
        要说某日上下午,用on换in才能行
        午夜黄昏须用at,黎明用它也不错
        at也用在明分前,说差可要用上to,
        说过只可使用past,多说多练牢牢记,
        莫让岁月空蹉跎

可数名词的复数变化规律[1]:
        名词复数有规律,一般词尾加s;
        辅音字母+y型,变y为i,es;
        ch,sh真有趣,s,x,es;
        f,fe真小气,字母v来把它替,es在后别忘记;
        字母o来真神奇,有生命来es,没有生命+s.

可数名词复数特殊变化规律[2]:
        中日好友来聚会,绵羊、鹿、鱼把家回。
        男士、女士a变e;牙(齿)、脚双o变双e;
        孩子们想去天安门,原形后面r、 e 、n;
        老鼠本来爱大米, mice,ice和rice.
注:中Chinese,日Japanese,好友people. 绵羊sheep,鹿deer,鱼fish (这些单词单复数一样) man--men  
woman--women  tooth--teeth  foot--feet  child--children   mouse--mice


一般现在时态
       (一)
        we、you、they作主语,动词原形后面跟;
        否定句,更容易,动词前面加don't;
        疑问句,别着急,句首Do,来帮你,
        后面问号别忘记;肯定回答用Yes,
        we、you、they加上do; 否定回答要用No,
        we、you、they加don't.

      (二)
        主语三单他、她、它,动三形式后面压,
        词尾一般s加;辅音字母+y型,
        变y为i,es; ch,sh真有趣,
        s,x,es; 三个特殊那里去?
        has、goes和does; 否定句,记住它,
        动词前面doesn't; 疑问句,别着急,
        句首Does,来帮你; 肯定回答用Yes,
        he、she、it加does; 否定回答要用No,
        he、she、it、doesn't; Does、doesn't来帮你,
        后面动词定注意,恢复原形要切记。

记住f(e)结尾的名词复数
        妻子持刀去宰狼,小偷吓得发了慌;
        躲在架后保己命,半片树叶遮目光
        九个以-f(e)结尾的名词。wife(妻子)、knife(刀子)、wolf(狼)、thief(小偷)、shelf(架子)、self(自己)、 life(生命)、half(一半)、leaf(树叶)
        其中点出了七个,即thief、wife、knife、leaf、wolf、half和 life。  这些名词以-f(e)结尾变复数时,将-f(e)变v再加es。还有以-self结尾的反身代词复数用法也同样,如:   myself------ourselves.     yourself------yourselves.
        例外的有serf(农奴)、chief(首领)、belief(信仰)、safe(保险柜)、gulf(海湾),它们以直接加-s变为复数形式,另外handkerchief可用两种复数形式。handkerchiefs或handkerchieves.


巧记48个国际音标
        单元音共十二,四二六前中后
        双元音也好背,合口集中八个整
        辅音共计二十八,八对一清又七浊,
        四个连对也包括,有气无声清辅音,
        有声无气浊辅音,发音特点应掌握


非谓语动词的一些特殊用法:
        后只接不定式作宾语的一些常用特殊谓语动词:want,hope和wish,agree,decide,mean,manage,promise,
expect,pretend,且说两位算在此, 要记牢,要记住,掌握它们靠自己。

后接动词不定式做宾语补足语,省略不定式符号to的一些常用特殊动词
        一些动词要掌握,have,let和make,
        此三动词是使役,注意观察听到see,
        还有feel和watch,使用它们要仔细,
        后接宾补略去to,此点千万要牢记
        除此之外,还可以掌握八字言
        一感feel,二听hear,listen to,三让have,let,make,四看see,look at,observe,watch

后只接动名词做宾语的一些常用特殊动词
        特殊动词接动名,使用它们要记清,
        放弃享受可后悔,坚持练习必完成,
        延期避免非介意      掌握它们今必行

动名词在句中的功能及其它
        动名语法其功能,名词特征有动形,
        主宾表定都可作,动名现分要认清,
        现分不作宾和主,动名作状可不行,
        二词皆可作定语,混为一谈不允许,
        主谓关系视分词,动名一词无此义。

现在分词形式及在句子中的作用(包括过去分词的作用):
        现在分词真好记,动词后面ING.
        它的作用真不小,可以充当定状表
        还有宾语补足语,忘记此项不可以

分词做定语的位置及其它
        定分位置有二条,词前词后定分晓
        单个分词在词前,有时此规有颠倒
        分词短语在词后,定从和它互对照
        现分动作进行时,过分动作完成了
(注:定分:做定语的分词;定从:定语从句;现分:现在分词;过分:过去分词)

分词做状语在句子中所表示的意义
        分词做状语,概有七意义
        时间和原因,结果与目的
        方式加伴随,条件常出席
        且谈其主语,谓语头前的*.
        欲要记住它,必须常练习(*指句子的主语)

独立主格结构
        独立结构要认清:名代之后副或形
        或是分词或介短,with结构不可轻,
        名代二词是其主,句子结构必分明
        独立结构好掌握,句中作用只一个:
        千变万化皆做状,其中意义也不多
        时间条件和原因,方式伴随没别的
        状从和其前三个,可以互变不难学

英语分数巧记
        英语分数不费事,母序子基四个字
        分子若是大于一,分母还须加-s.

字母oo读音歌
        oo发最常见,非重音中要短念
        字母k前不能长,好脚站木羊毛短
        血与水灾真特殊,oo读[ ?]细分辨
        oo加r读作,poor读[ pu?]好可怜
注:好脚站木即:good,foot,stood,wood
        第二句也可以是:d k之前oo短,footfood恰相反
        1.长音:bloom,boot,cool,food,moon,root,school,soon,too,troop,room,zoo
        2.弱读短:classroom,schoolroom,workroom,bedroom,boyhood
        3.k前短:book,brook,cook,look,shook,took
        4.[ ?:]:door,floor
        5.巧记"oo"发音
        中学英语课本中,有很多带有"oo"字母的单词,它们有的读作,有的读作,还有的读其他的音,不是很好记,下面,老厉我把"oo"读作的组成一句话,以便记忆:
        Cross  stood  by  the  brook, shook  a  book  about  his  boyhood,  took  a  look  his  good  diningroom,  and  cook  the  wooden  food.(克鲁斯站在一条小溪边,晃动着一本记述着他童年的书,看了一眼他那蛮好的餐间,然后煮起那只木脚。)此句里包含12个含有“oo”的单词,它们的读音都是,room的“oo”读作,但它的合成词读作,当然,还要记住少量发音特殊的单词,除此之外,“oo”一般都读作。

“I  Drop  Caps”
在某些表示请求命令建议等动词后面的宾语从句中,谓语动词要用动词原形或should+动词原形
        i-----insist, d-----demand, r------request/require/recommend, o------order, p------propose, c------command,
a-------advise, p------preqersic, s------suggest.

巧记英文信封的写法

        A.可以记住汉字尖字,先写小地名,再写大地名。
        B.将竖式汉文写法的信封,按顺时针方向旋至水平位置这样,地址的排列顺序恰巧是英文信封的书写格式。

巧记家庭成员
        爹father 娘mother 哥哥弟弟brother 姐姐妹妹sister.
        long before 和before long
        long 在前(long before),很久前, long在后(before long),不久后

巧记lie和lay
         躺 lie,lay,lain,lie in bed again;
        撒谎 lie,lied,lied,dont be a liar;
        产蛋 lay,laid,laid,a hen laid an egg;
        放置 A boy picked it up,and laid it in the bag.

开闭音节歌
        开音节,音节开,一元字母在后排;
        不怕一辅堵后门,还有哑e在门外
      (拍手念)a,e,o,u,i 就读[ei]    [?u]  [ju:]  [ai]
        闭音节,音节闭,一元字母生闷气;
        辅音字母堵后门,一元字母音短急
     (拍手念)a,e,  u,  o,  i就读[ae] [e]  [?]  [?][之一)
        基变序,有规律,词尾字母tdd。①
        八减t,九减e, f要把ve替。②
        ty把y变成i,记住th前有个e。③
        ①按:指first、second、third。
        ②按:指eight去掉t,nine去掉e,five和twelve去掉ve ,加上f。
        ③按:指twenty→twentieth等。

基数词变序数词(之二)
        第一、二、三要全变,①   其余“th”加后边,
       “th”里有例外,②    你需格外记明白:
        八减t,九减e,③      字母f代ve,④        
        ty变tie。⑤
        ①one——first,two——second,three——third。
        ②four------fourth,seven--------seventh,hundred------hundredth。
        ③eight——eighth,nine—ninth。
        ④five--------fifth,twelve--------twelfth。
        ⑤twenty-------twentieth,sixty-------sixtieth。

直接引语间接引语的记忆口诀、定语从句记忆口诀、被动语态的口诀

        人称变更怎么办? “一主①、二宾②、三不变”③
        若是自引自的话,听者不变称不变。
        注:①“一主”指在直接引语中的第一人称变为间接引语时,要和主句中的主语在人称上保持一致。如:
He sad,“I am forty,”→He said that he was forty.
        ②“二宾”指直接引语中的第二人称变为间接引语时,要和主句中的间接宾语保持人称一致。如:
He said,“Are you coming tomorrow?”→He asked me if  I  was  coming the next day.
        ③“三不变”指直接引语中的第三人称变为间接引语时,人称不变。如:
He said,“Is she an English teacher?”→He asked if she was an English teacher.
        另外注意直接引语为复数,引述者主语为单数,间接引语主语相应变复数。如:
He said,“Are you interested in English?”→He asked me/us if I was/we were interested in English .

被动语态
        一般现、过用be done,be有人称、时、数变。
        完成时态have done,被动将been加中间。
        一般将来shall (will) do,被动变do为be done。
        将来进行无被动,shall (will) be doing,
        现在完成进行同,have (has) been doing。
        现、过进行be doing, 被动be加being done。
        情、助、有、是妥安排,一律随新主语变。
        否定助后加not,疑问一助置主前。
        主语恰是疑问词,直陈语序主在前。
        一般情助加be done,双宾多将间宾变。
        复合宾语宾变主,宾补、主补相应变

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